Architecture Essays

The Historic East Campus at Muskingum College (1873-2016)

Following the construction of Paul Hall in 1873, a steady evolution in architecture and education came and went, while Paul Hall remains the only building left on Muskingum’s former Historic East Campus. So what all was up there?

Paul Hall (1873) features in an undated color photograph, with 57 and 55 N. Layton Dr houses in the background

To preface the following article, my definition of the “Historic East Campus” may vary from those set by historians. My view starts with the construction of the building that would become known as Paul Hall, named for President David Paul, as its history and what follows gives it a distinction as the only building still standing. I am also including the lots on Layton and East High Street as those houses were bought by the college for construction of new buildings in the 21st Century. Also included is the Little Theatre due to it being a part of the East Campus, and where its bricks were sourced.

Paul Hall (1873) with Second College Hall (1851) at its rear, in a 19th Century drawing.

Muskingum College began in 1837, and for 14 years its faculty and students met in a simple, three-story building that caught on fire in 1851. The structure was rebuilt, seemingly identical, and would later have Paul Hall added to the front. This is the reason for why Paul Hall has a short, nonmatching extension in the back that serves as the staircase and bathroom facilities, as the stairs between the two floors were contained in the 1851 building.

An undated color photograph of Johnson Hall (1899) prior to its 1977 renovation.

The next building on the East Hill to be constructed would be Johnson Hall in 1899. Like Paul Hall, it did not receive its name until much later, and being named after the College President that served in the time the building was constructed, Rev. Jesse Johnson. This expanded the school’s capacity for science classes, adding a chapel on the west side of the building, and contained rooms for Literary Societies. The building was constructed at $10,659 ($334,505.10 adjusted for inflation in today’s dollars) and was likely constructed on the cheap.

Early 21st Century color photograph of the Little Theatre/Alumni Gymnasium (1900)

As the back portion of Paul Hall was considered unsafe due to it being a rebuild of the original College Hall that caught fire, the rear was removed and its bricks being recycled to build the Alumni Gymnasium. It was located across Layton Drive from where the College Drive Presbyterian Church sits today. This would be the first building for Muskingum focusing on the physical health of its students, and served this purpose for a few decades. It was a one-story building, its gym featuring bleachers, a wooden floor, and a raised ceiling.

The President’s Manse (1905), next to houses on College Place in a 1915 postcard.

Beginning with the Presidency of Reverend J. Knox Montgomery, he ensured a Manse would be built for him and his family to reside in during his term, which lasted until the early 1930s. A garage would be built later on for storage of the automobile Montgomery drove, with it being accessible from College Drive. The Manse stood west of four houses, 7, 5, 3, and 1 College Pl. 7 College Pl was likely built prior to the Manse based on photographs taken before the Manse’s existence. 5 College Pl was a one-story cottage design built either late 1890s or early 1900s, with 3 and 1 College Pl being built mostly identically. Of the four houses, 5 College Pl is the poorest-documented due to it often being obscured by Johnson Hall, or poorly-contrasted aerial photos.

Between 1963 and 1994, 5 and 7 College Pl were demolished, with their lots being used to expand the backyard of the President’s Manse for events, and eventually a new garage. 1 and 3 College Pl would later be bought by the school, and lived in by Phi Mu Alpha (Sinfonia) fraternity and Sigma Alpha Iota sorority, respectively, until 2008 when those two houses were also demolished in the construction of a new music building.

A color photograph aerial of the Historic East Campus in 2004

Following the construction of Caldwell Hall wrapping up in 2004, Johnson Hall and the Little Theatre (formerly the alumni gymnasium) began to see some of its primary functions migrate to the new building. Left behind, however, were the music, language, and art programs. Paul Hall housed the music programs despite how little room it had, and Johnson Hall still had the Louis Palmer Art Gallery in the west wing on the bottom floor, along with the language and art programs. The school recognized the disadvantage of space issues, and set out to begin adding room for the arts.

Clockwise from the top, the Music Annex, John and Ruth Neptune Center (2006), and the Art Annex in a December 2008 aerial photograph, formerly from Bing’s Birds Eye View library.

East of Paul Hall sat 57 and 55 N. Layton Drive. 57 held extra space for music practicing and classes, and 55 was formerly the house of Professors Charles and Ferne Layton, which later served as the Art Annex. Two lots on East High Street, 4 and 10, were subsequently bought by the college and demolished to make room for a new art complex.

In 2006, the John and Ruth Neptune Center mirrored the Cape Cod architecture of the Art Annex, while increasing size significantly for art workspaces. With the Neptune Center in existence, Johnson Hall slowly had its art programs migrated to Neptune, Art Annex, and even some in Paul Hall. Its Palmer Art Gallery would also move to the library, essentially putting the nail in the coffin for the building’s functions. Due to its age and increasing costs in maintenance, the construction ended a long chapter of history, leaving the land open for a new chapter.

Beginning in December 2008, the two remaining College Place houses, the Manse’s garage, and Johnson Hall were demolished to make room for what would become Otto and Fran Walter Hall, the new music building, and home for the foreign language programs. Up until a few years ago, Microsoft’s Bing Maps had a Birds Eye View feature that contained images of Muskingum College right at the beginning of the construction. Thanks to another website, I was able to obtain higher-resolution images that weren’t compressed by Bing. Not long after obtaining these images, the Birds Eye Feature went down, and the images are believed to be lost as Microsoft no longer holds the license for those photographs.

Not long after Johnson Hall was demolished, another historic building was razed after being condemned for some time. The former Alumni Gymnasium, now known as the Little Theatre, would be demolished in June 2009. With the location being mildly inconvenient for the college to find any use for it, the lot sat empty for nearly a decade until citizens of New Concord decided to start the Friendship Garden on top of it.

The New Concord Friendship Community Garden, prior to building a shed on the lot.

With the Palmer Art Gallery using space in the Library, and with plans to completely remodel the Library next, the two remaining annex houses would be demolished in early 2012, with the Palmer Art Gallery opening in its own brick building the following year. This completed the plan to dedicate the furthest part of the East Campus to the Arts.

Neptune Center and Palmer Art Gallery during the winter season in 2016.

With all the changes made to the Historic East Campus from 2008-2013, the plans seemed to be finished, and two historic buildings remained: Paul Hall, and the President’s Manse. In 2015, it was announced that University President Anne C. Steele would be retiring the following year, and the Board of Trustees had made the tough decision to raze the Manse upon discovering significant damage to the foundation. Following the transition, a new house was made for incoming-President Sue Hasseler in the nearby Meadowood subdivision, and the Manse came down to a pile of rubble in July 2016.

A close-up of the demolished Manse, its remains being picked up and hauled away to a landfill, on July 29, 2016, at 7 AM.

With the President’s Manse demolition, this left, and leaves, Paul Hall as the last building holding up the definition of the Historic East Campus District. As buildings age, new ideas, goals, and chapters continue to begin. The school has done some work to archive and display its history, though it leaves a bit to be desired as not enough of it is available online, with this entire article coming from years of my fascination with my alma mater, carrying years of photographs, notes, and books I have collected.

As this article comes to a close, I do plan to continue uploading my digital collection online as much as I can over the next several years, and as I gain permission for some of the pictures of the college that many do not know I have acquired, those too will come up online someday. While I love studying the historical aspect of the college and its various buildings, I also understand how well practicality is a factor in continuing to attract new students and further their education. However, there is always room for historical preservation, through photos, classes based on it, discussions, or even a singular building dedicated to all of that. Muskingum University has not gone that direction yet, but I highly suggest that they take the opportunity someday to do it as you never know who will be the next student fascinated to a point of near-obsession over the school that changed their life forever.

Paul Hall as it stands today. In comparison to the photo at the start of this article, it isn’t quite the same hill with the familiar leaves, but the history and the present can be seen as Walter Hall (2010) stands in the background.

– Muskingum County Auditor for the addresses, and 2003 satellite imagery
– Google Earth Satellite imagery from April 1994
– Muskingum College Muscoljuan Yearbooks from 1920-2008
Muskingum College (The Campus History Series) book by Heather Giffen, William Kerrigan, and Ryan Worbs
A History of Muskingum College book by William L Fisk
College music building rendering by Bialosky + Partners, uploaded by Timothy Dumm on Flickr
– Otto and Fran Walter Hall final design picture by Joshua Franzos, as copied from Muskingum University’s About Music page
– Information regarding design of the College Place houses were determined by the Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps of New Concord. The 1918 and 1946 maps can be found on the website of the Library of Congress.

Bonus pictures:

2010 Birds Eye Aerial, following the completion of Otto and Fran Walter Hall. The Music and Art Annexes can be seen behind it, as well as the President’s Manse and new garage. The new garage was demolished a few years following demolition of the Manse.
The new President’s House, 2017.
A campus map included on a pre-1950s Muscoljuan.
A 1963 drawn Campus Map, featured on the back of a folder.
Walter Hall under construction in 2009, shortly before Muskingum College became Muskingum University.
Architecture Essays

The Peters Cartridge Factory

Peters Cartridge Company Marker (credit to Rev. Ronald Irick for his submission of this to the Historical Marker Database on June 5, 2018)

This particular area near Cincinnati is best known today for its Kings Island Amusement Park, which has entertained guests for nearly fifty years. Prior to this, Kings Mills had been known to its residents for housing a large ammunition factory. Founded by Gershom Moore Peters in 1887, the company would have its heydays in the days of both World Wars, supplying much-needed ammunition for the war cause.

Peters would be bought by the Remington Arms Company in 1934, manufacturing the ammunition needed in World War II, up until 1944 when production ceased. A lesser-known chapter began after Remington would sell the factory to Columbia Records, who in turn used the manufacturing space for the next five years in creating 78rpm phonograph records. This operation ceased in 1945.

A 1935 photograph of the factory (Credit to Thomas D. Schiffer/Peters & King from “Former Peters Cartridge factory a hot spot for ghost hunters and police” by Maxim Alter for WCPO, September 30, 2019)

Later, the factory’s warehousing space would be used by Seagram distillers until 1968. The lot would for the most part live an abandoned life, slowly being reclaimed by nature, and gain interest in ghost hunters and urban explorers alike. In 2015, the area was heavily cleaned up after being declared a superfund site a few years prior, and in 2019, it was ready for development. Today, the site is home to Cartridge Brewing, and the future home of many apartments using the old buildings.

The shot tower and chimney remain as the site’s most iconic features, continuing to be preserved by the lot’s new uses

Many of the buildings have since been demolished, including a warehouse on the other side of the road. What remains is its foundation, which I was able to see a decent amount of by exploring the woods nearby. For more information regarding the factory, I recommend doing further research on the HMDB link listed in the sources, checking out the Wikipedia article, and perhaps best of all, visiting the site itself as it’s opening up to the public.

Cartridge Brewing as it appears today, with freshly-paved asphalt, straw above grass seed, and small trees ready to grow with the next chapter

Historical Marker Database:
WCPO Article:

Special thanks to my close friend, Chris Evans, for taking me on an unplanned visit to this awesome place. Without him I’d have never known about it.


Lost to Time: The Muskingum University Quad Parking Lot

Stormont Street prior to Steele Center
What is now the campus’s major parking lot was for nearly a hundred years home to numerous residents, having the convenience of living across from the Quad.

For this feature, we are taking a look at a neighborhood that minus one house is entirely a parking lot now. At the top, we see the houses on Montgomery Blvd. Except for a few, a majority of these were demolished in the 1980s when the Recreation Center (now the Anne C. Steele Center) was about to be constructed.

105 Montgomery Blvd

If the newspaper article above is in the time period I’m thinking of, 105 Montgomery Boulevard was one of those houses to be razed, despite the recent remodeling/repurposing. Someone should put a plaque inside the Steele Center commemorating the efforts of the people who worked on it, only to see it destroyed a few years later. Or at least a Facebook post to tell the remodelers “good job!” From Pat’s Blog Site, thank you for your hard work.

101 Montgomery Blvd being demolished
101 Montgomery Blvd is razed by an excavator to make room for the Recreation Center. Circa 1985/86.

Across from Cambridge Hall is the Lowery House, which I believe was named after a professor (I’ll update this when I read Dr. William Fisk’s College history book again). After Lowery’s passing, the house was used by the university until 2002 when construction began on Caldwell Hall, and along with a few other houses along Stormont and Thompson, was torn down. Lowery House’s location and front is pictured below, with the lower image being used on the old Muskingum College website prior to the house’s demolition.

On Stormont, the ASAs took home to 154 for a short period of time, from the late 90s until 2001. Next to it was 152, which had been gone for a number of years prior to the construction of Caldwell Hall. Pictured below, the featured image is the former ASA House, with the brick house being 150 Stormont Street, then the college Wellness Center and Campus Police building. Also pictured is 148 Stormont, which is now located at 135 Lakeside Drive, and currently home to the Phi Mu Alpha (Sinfonia) fraternity.

Thompson Avenue had a couple of apartment buildings addressed at 104 and 106, both of which came down in 2002. 148 Stormont, along with 104 Montgomery, were the only two houses saved, with the former being moved to the former site of 135 Lakeside Dr. Photos of that event exist, though I have yet to see them uploaded anywhere and hope that changes.

Comin Street Annex, former Church of Christ Building in New Concord, Ohio.
Pictured are 106 Thompson Ave, and the Comin Street Annex
1990s aerial of Muskingum College
The final promotional aerial taken before the construction of Caldwell Hall, which began in 2002 and completed in 2004. The Comin Street Annex can be seen as the small white building at the top right of the image

One building I was unable to locate detailed pictures for, but able to write about its history, is the Comin Street Annex. It was constructed by a church community who would later become known as the Church of Christ. They held services in this building until the construction of a new building on Friendship Drive, closer to John Glenn High School. The church would sell the small building to the college, who in turn used it as an annex until its demolition in 2002 for the Caldwell Hall parking lot. As of this writing, I do not know what use the school made of it.

102 and 104 Montgomery Blvd in the 1970s
102 and 104 Montgomery Boulevard, from left-to-right. 102 was likely demolished before the construction started on the Recreation Center.

While the neighborhood, consisting of a total of 16 buildings, is entirely gone, its history is held up by one single house in its original place. 104 Montgomery, formerly the International House, currently houses Campus Police. The Wellness Center was moved to its own brand new building on the former site of the MACE House, behind the Lakeside Duplexes. Given that 104 Montgomery is nearly a century old, it’s likely that as much as life, it too, someday, shall pass, and its lot will find a new use.

I will be writing more posts on Muskingum College’s campus based on the numerous photos I’ve saved and collected over the past six years, although I do not intend to do it too frequently as I want my site to be diverse on its architectural studies.

– Muskingum County Auditor for the addresses
– Google Earth Satellite imagery from April 1994
– Muskingum College Muscoljuan Yearbooks from 1940-1986